Un peu comme le projet raté d'ingénieurie sociale en décollage capitaliste en Afghanistan, les USA ont aussi pu rencontrer les mêmes genres de problèmes en Indonésie en 2001-2008, en tentant de créer un Islam libéral :
Hundreds of Indonesian clerics went through U.S.-sponsored courses that taught a reform-minded reading of the Koran. A handbook for preachers, published with U.S. money, offered tips on what to preach. One American-funded Muslim group even tried to script Friday prayer sermons.
"We wanted to challenge hard-line ideas head-on," recalled Ulil Abshar Abdalla, an Indonesian expert in Islamic theology who, with Asia Foundation funding, set up the Liberal Islam Network in 2001. The network launched a weekly radio program that questioned literal interpretations of sacred texts with respect to women, homosexuals and basic doctrine. It bought airtime on national television for a video that presented Islam as a faith of "many colors" and distributed leaflets promoting liberal theology in mosques.
Feted by Americans as a model moderate, Abdalla was flown to Washington in 2002 to meet officials at the State Department and the Pentagon, including Paul D. Wolfowitz, the then-deputy secretary of defense and a former U.S. ambassador to Jakarta. But efforts to transplant Cold War tactics into the Islamic world started to go very wrong. More-conservative Muslims never liked what they viewed as American meddling in theology. Their unease over U.S. motives escalated sharply with the start of the Iraq war and spread to a wider constituency. Iraq "destroyed everything," said Abdalla, who started getting death threats.
Indonesia's council of clerics, enraged by what it saw as a U.S. campaign to reshape Islam, issued a fatwa denouncing "secularism, pluralism and liberalism."
Les USA semblent renoncer clairement depuis à une intrusion aussi directe. C'est la difficulté d'une "Hégémonie" actuelle : les autorités américaines ont une puissance immense (notamment financière, technologique et militaire) mais se retrouvent très vite face à des limites dans ce qu'ils peuvent faire dans ces sociétés sur lesquelles ils veulent agir.